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1- PHD Student off economicsLorestan University ,
2- Associate Professor of Economics, Tarbiat Modares University
3- Associate Professor of EconomicsLorestan University
Abstract:   (352 Views)
Aim and Introduction:
In the economy, we witness the occurrence of various shocks that affect economic variables and change their course over time. Knowing the effect of these shocks on economic variables is necessary for proper policy making in the economy. Therefore, many researches are conducted in this field in the world. Policy-making without recognizing these effects can face wide challenges. One of the most effective shocks in Iran's economy is the sanctions, especially the nuclear sanctions, which have had extensive effects on the behavior of brokers and consequently on the country's economic variables.
Economic sanctions cause a change in the exchange rate by creating a chaotic atmosphere and confusion in the economy, followed by a change in the supply and demand of housing. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of economic sanctions on the supply and demand of housing through the exchange rate channel. For this purpose, provincial seasonal data for the period of 1390-1400 have been used and apparently unrelated regression model (SUR) has been used to analyze the data.
Different methods can be used to estimate the model of the equations of this study, such as single equation methods or methods of solving simultaneous equations, whose estimates are different. The most common methods of solving simultaneous equations are the two-stage and three-stage least squares regression methods, as well as apparently unrelated regression, which is used when there is a relationship between the error part of the equations Or there is a simultaneous correlation. The method discussed in this research is the model of apparently unrelated regressions (SUR) or apparently unrelated regression equations (SURE), which was proposed in 1962 in econometrics. It is used in this review.
The findings of this research show that provincial gross domestic product, housing prices, and inflation have a positive effect on demand. The variables of stock market index, exchange rate and sanctions have had a negative effect on housing demand. On the supply side, housing price variables, the number of building permits issued, and inflation have a positive effect on the housing supply, while the exchange rate, sanctions, and the price of construction materials have a negative effect on the housing supply. Imports and embargoes have increased the exchange rate and exports have decreased the exchange rate. On this basis, the embargo has both a direct effect and an indirect effect through the exchange rate on the reduction of housing supply and demand.
Discussion and Conclusion:
The estimation results for the first equation show that the variables are significant. It can also be said that provincial GDP, housing prices and general price level index have a positive effect on housing demand and with the increase of these variables, housing demand increases. According to the findings of the research and the analysis of the available data, the inverse relationship between the stock market index, the sanctions index and the exchange rate with housing demand is confirmed. So, with the growth of the stock market index, sanctions index and exchange rate, the demand for housing decreases.
In the preliminary results, the estimate for the second equation of the average effect of labor wages as a part of the production cost was not significant. But in estimates, the effect of the price of construction materials is significant. This variable was removed from the model. It can be said that one of the reasons for the non-significance of the wage variable is its low relative growth compared to the growth of housing prices and the growth of construction materials. On the other hand, the share of wages in housing construction costs is much lower than the costs of materials and other costs. This causes the wage rate in Iran to be less effective in housing supply. It can also be said that an increase in the provincial GDP, housing prices and the number of building permits issued increases housing supply.
The results of the third equation show that exports, imports, sanctions index, liquidity volume and provincial gross domestic product explain 99% of exchange rate changes. It is worth mentioning that the increase in exports and the sanctions index increases the exchange rate, but with the increase in imports, the exchange rate decreases, which shows the negative relationship between the exchange rate and imports. Since the exchange rate increases under the influence of the sanctions and the exchange rate has a negative effect on the housing demand, it can be said that the sanctions have a direct effect on the economic activities of supply and demand due to the disruption of security, certainty and economic stability. Housing has an effect on the supply and demand of housing due to the change in the exchange rate
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics
Received: 2023/08/18 | Accepted: 2023/10/8

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